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There are limits imposed on the time taken before progressing the ball past halfway 8 seconds in FIBA and the NBA; 10 seconds in NCAA and high school for both sexes , before attempting a shot 24 seconds in FIBA, the NBA, and U Sports Canadian universities play for both sexes, and 30 seconds in NCAA play for both sexes , holding the ball while closely guarded 5 seconds , and remaining in the restricted area known as the free-throw lane, or the " key " 3 seconds.
These rules are designed to promote more offense. Basket interference , or goaltending is a violation charged when a player illegally interferes with a shot.
This violation is incurred when a player touches the ball on its downward trajectory to the basket, unless it is obvious that the ball has no chance of entering the basket, if a player touches the ball while it is in the rim, or in the area extended upwards from the basket, or if a player reaches through the basket to interfere with the shot.
When a defensive player is charged with goaltending, the basket is awarded. If an offensive player commits the infraction, the basket is cancelled.
In either case possession of the ball is turned over to the defensive team. An attempt to unfairly disadvantage an opponent through certain types of physical contact is illegal and is called a personal foul.
These are most commonly committed by defensive players; however, they can be committed by offensive players as well. Players who are fouled either receive the ball to pass inbounds again, or receive one or more free throws if they are fouled in the act of shooting, depending on whether the shot was successful.
One point is awarded for making a free throw, which is attempted from a line 15 feet 4. The referee is responsible for judging whether contact is illegal, sometimes resulting in controversy.
The calling of fouls can vary between games, leagues and referees. There is a second category of fouls called technical fouls , which may be charged for various rules violations including failure to properly record a player in the scorebook, or for unsportsmanlike conduct.
These infractions result in one or two free throws, which may be taken by any of the five players on the court at the time. Repeated incidents can result in disqualification.
A blatant foul involving physical contact that is either excessive or unnecessary is called an intentional foul flagrant foul in the NBA.
This is called shooting "one-and-one". If a team exceeds 10 fouls in the half, the opposing team is awarded two free throws on all subsequent fouls for the half.
When a team shoots foul shots, the opponents may not interfere with the shooter, nor may they try to regain possession until the last or potentially last free throw is in the air.
After a team has committed a specified number of fouls, the other team is said to be "in the bonus". On scoreboards, this is usually signified with an indicator light reading "Bonus" or "Penalty" with an illuminated directional arrow or dot indicating that team is to receive free throws when fouled by the opposing team.
Some scoreboards also indicate the number of fouls committed. If a team misses the first shot of a two-shot situation, the opposing team must wait for the completion of the second shot before attempting to reclaim possession of the ball and continuing play.
If a player is fouled while attempting a shot and the shot is unsuccessful, the player is awarded a number of free throws equal to the value of the attempted shot.
A player fouled while attempting a regular two-point shot thus receives two shots, and a player fouled while attempting a three-point shot receives three shots.
If a player is fouled while attempting a shot and the shot is successful, typically the player will be awarded one additional free throw for one point.
In combination with a regular shot, this is called a "three-point play" or "four-point play" or more colloquially, an "and one" because of the basket made at the time of the foul 2 or 3 points and the additional free throw 1 point.
Although the rules do not specify any positions whatsoever, they have evolved as part of basketball. In more recent times specific positions evolved, but the current trend, advocated by many top coaches including Mike Krzyzewski is towards positionless basketball, where big guys are free to shoot from outside and dribble if their skill allows it.
Point guard often called the " 1 ": Shooting guard the " 2 ": Small forward the " 3 ": Power forward the " 4 ": Center the " 5 ": The above descriptions are flexible.
For most teams today, the shooting guard and small forward have very similar responsibilities and are often called the wings , as do the power forward and center, who are often called post players.
While most teams describe two players as guards, two as forwards, and one as a center, on some occasions teams choose to call them by different designations.
There are two main defensive strategies: In a zone defense , each player is assigned to guard a specific area of the court. Zone defenses often allow the defense to double team the ball, a manoeuver known as a trap.
In a man-to-man defense , each defensive player guards a specific opponent. Offensive plays are more varied, normally involving planned passes and movement by players without the ball.
A quick movement by an offensive player without the ball to gain an advantageous position is known as a cut. The two plays are combined in the pick and roll , in which a player sets a pick and then "rolls" away from the pick towards the basket.
Screens and cuts are very important in offensive plays; these allow the quick passes and teamwork, which can lead to a successful basket.
Teams almost always have several offensive plays planned to ensure their movement is not predictable. On court, the point guard is usually responsible for indicating which play will occur.
Shooting is the act of attempting to score points by throwing the ball through the basket, methods varying with players and situations.
Typically, a player faces the basket with both feet facing the basket. A player will rest the ball on the fingertips of the dominant hand the shooting arm slightly above the head, with the other hand supporting the side of the ball.
The ball is usually shot by jumping though not always and extending the shooting arm. The shooting arm, fully extended with the wrist fully bent, is held stationary for a moment following the release of the ball, known as a follow-through.
Players often try to put a steady backspin on the ball to absorb its impact with the rim. The ideal trajectory of the shot is somewhat controversial, but generally a proper arc is recommended.
Players may shoot directly into the basket or may use the backboard to redirect the ball into the basket. The two most common shots that use the above described setup are the set shot and the jump shot.
The set shot is taken from a standing position, with neither foot leaving the floor, typically used for free throws, and in other circumstances while the jump shot is taken in mid-air, the ball released near the top of the jump.
This provides much greater power and range, and it also allows the player to elevate over the defender. Failure to release the ball before the feet return to the floor is considered a traveling violation.
Another common shot is called the lay-up. This shot requires the player to be in motion toward the basket, and to "lay" the ball "up" and into the basket, typically off the backboard the backboard-free, underhand version is called a finger roll.
The most crowd-pleasing and typically highest-percentage accuracy shot is the slam dunk , in which the player jumps very high and throws the ball downward, through the basket while touching it.
Another shot that is becoming common [ citation needed ] is the "circus shot". A back-shot is a shot taken when the player is facing away from the basket, and may be shot with the dominant hand, or both; but there is a very low chance that the shot will be successful.
A shot that misses both the rim and the backboard completely is referred to as an air ball. A particularly bad shot, or one that only hits the backboard, is jocularly called a brick.
The hang time is the length of time a player stays in the air after jumping, either to make a slam dunk, lay-up or jump shot.
The objective of rebounding is to successfully gain possession of the basketball after a missed field goal or free throw, as it rebounds from the hoop or backboard.
This plays a major role in the game, as most possessions end when a team misses a shot. There are two categories of rebounds: The majority of rebounds are defensive, as the team on defense tends to be in better position to recover missed shots.
A pass is a method of moving the ball between players. Most passes are accompanied by a step forward to increase power and are followed through with the hands to ensure accuracy.
A staple pass is the chest pass. A proper chest pass involves an outward snap of the thumbs to add velocity and leaves the defence little time to react.
Another type of pass is the bounce pass. Here, the passer bounces the ball crisply about two-thirds of the way from his own chest to the receiver.
The ball strikes the court and bounces up toward the receiver. The bounce pass takes longer to complete than the chest pass, but it is also harder for the opposing team to intercept kicking the ball deliberately is a violation.
Thus, players often use the bounce pass in crowded moments, or to pass around a defender. The overhead pass is used to pass the ball over a defender.
The outlet pass occurs after a team gets a defensive rebound. The next pass after the rebound is the outlet pass. The crucial aspect of any good pass is it being difficult to intercept.
Good passers can pass the ball with great accuracy and they know exactly where each of their other teammates prefers to receive the ball.
A special way of doing this is passing the ball without looking at the receiving teammate. This is called a no-look pass.
Although some players can perform such a pass effectively, many coaches discourage no-look or behind-the-back passes, believing them to be difficult to control and more likely to result in turnovers or violations.
Dribbling is the act of bouncing the ball continuously with one hand, and is a requirement for a player to take steps with the ball. To dribble, a player pushes the ball down towards the ground with the fingertips rather than patting it; this ensures greater control.
When dribbling past an opponent, the dribbler should dribble with the hand farthest from the opponent, making it more difficult for the defensive player to get to the ball.
It is therefore important for a player to be able to dribble competently with both hands. Good dribblers or "ball handlers" tend to bounce the ball low to the ground, reducing the distance of travel of the ball from the floor to the hand, making it more difficult for the defender to "steal" the ball.
Good ball handlers frequently dribble behind their backs, between their legs, and switch directions suddenly, making a less predictable dribbling pattern that is more difficult to defend against.
This is called a crossover, which is the most effective way to move past defenders while dribbling. A block is performed when, after a shot is attempted, a defender succeeds in altering the shot by touching the ball.
In almost all variants of play, it is illegal to touch the ball after it is in the downward path of its arc; this is known as goaltending.
Under international rules it is illegal to block a shot that is in the downward path of its arc or one that has touched the backboard until the ball has hit the rim.
After the ball hits the rim, it is again legal to touch it even though it is no longer considered as a block performed. To block a shot, a player has to be able to reach a point higher than where the shot is released.
Thus, height can be an advantage in blocking. Players who are taller and playing the power forward or center positions generally record more blocks than players who are shorter and playing the guard positions.
However, with good timing and a sufficiently high vertical leap, even shorter players can be effective shot blockers. Guards, for whom physical coordination and ball-handling skills are crucial, tend to be the smallest players.
According to a survey given to all NBA teams, [ when? While shorter players are often at a disadvantage in certain aspects of the game, their ability to navigate quickly through crowded areas of the court and steal the ball by reaching low are strengths.
It should be noted that players regularly inflate their height. Many prospects exaggerate their height while in high school or college to make themselves more appealing to coaches and scouts, who prefer taller players.
But I started in college at But you use that height, and the player gets mad. And then you hear from his agent. So you sort of go along with the joke.
On rare occasions, some players will understate their actual heights, not to be repositioned. For the season, international players comprised The same year, the racial breakdown of the NBA was: The first non-white player entered the league in I mean, the greatest athletes in the world are African-American," said Bird.
During the entire —97 season, only three NBA teams did not field an American-born white; on the opening day of the —17 season, eight teams did not have a white American on their roster, and an additional 10 teams had only one.
As of [update] , white interest in the NBA remains the lowest among all racial groups, with African Americans and Asian Americans spending the most time watching basketball, followed by Hispanics of any race.
Variations of basketball are activities based on the game of basketball, using common basketball skills and equipment primarily the ball and basket.
Some variations are only superficial rules changes, while others are distinct games with varying degrees of basketball influences.
There are principal basketball sports with variations on basketball including Wheelchair basketball , Water basketball , Beach basketball , Slamball , Streetball and Unicycle basketball.
An earlier version of basketball, played primarily by women and girls, was Six-on-six basketball. Horseball is a game played on horseback where a ball is handled and points are scored by shooting it through a high net approximately 1.
The sport is like a combination of polo , rugby , and basketball. There is even a form played on donkeys known as Donkey basketball , but that version has come under attack from animal rights groups.
Beach basketball has grown to a very popular, widespread competitive sport. Spin-offs from basketball that are now separate sports include:.
Basketball has been adopted by various social groups, which have established their own environments and sometimes their own rules.
Such socialized forms of basketball include the following. Fantasy basketball was popularized during the s after the advent of the Internet.
Those who play this game are sometimes referred to as General Managers, who draft actual NBA players and compute their basketball statistics.
Other sports websites provided the same format keeping the game interesting with participants actually owning specific players.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the sport. For the ball used in the sport, see Basketball ball.
For other uses, see Basketball disambiguation. Basketball star LeBron James attempts a layup shot. This section needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Basketball ball , Basketball court , and Backboard basketball.
This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
December Learn how and when to remove this template message. Personal foul basketball and Technical foul. February Learn how and when to remove this template message.
Race and ethnicity in the NBA. The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate.
January Learn how and when to remove this template message. One-on-One , a variation in which two players will use only a small section of the court often no more than a half of a court and compete to play the ball into a single hoop.
Such games tend to emphasize individual dribbling and ball stealing skills over shooting and team play. November Learn how and when to remove this template message.
Retrieved September 14, Retrieved June 14, Retrieved June 11, Archived from the original on December 3, Archived from the original on March 14, Retrieved March 22, Retrieved February 24, US A The description in this patent explains problems caused by lacing on the cover of basketballs.
Archived from the original on February 5, Retrieved February 14, Retrieved January 20, Archived from the original on June 26, Archived from the original on December 1, Retrieved January 11, Retrieved June 3, Archived from the original on May 28, Retrieved July 25, Archived from the original on May 18, Retrieved February 6, Retrieved February 16, Archived from the original on August 10, Retrieved 18 November Archived from the original on June 20, A charge is physical contact between an offensive player and a defensive player.
In order to draw an offensive charge the defensive player must establish legal guarding positioning in the path of the offensive player. If contact is made, the officials would issue an offensive charge.
No points will be allowed and the ball is turned over. The defensive player may not draw an offensive charge in the "restricted zone" see below for more details.
Blocking is physical contact between the offensive player and the defensive player. Blocking fouls are issued when a defensive player interferes with the path of the offensive player in the shooting motion.
Blocking fouls are easily called when the defensive player is standing in the "restricted zone". In , the NBA introduced an arc of a 4-foot 1.
This was to prevent defensive players from attempting to draw an offensive foul on their opponents by standing underneath the basket. FIBA adopted this arc with a 1.
The ball was to be an "ordinary Association football ". In other words, a soccer ball. Originally a basket was used thus "basket-ball" , so the ball had to be retrieved after each made shot.
Today a hoop with an open-bottom hanging net is used instead. Originally, there was one umpire to judge fouls and one referee to judge the ball; the tradition of calling one official the "referee" and the other one or two the "umpires" has remained the NBA, however, uses different terminology, referring to the lead official as "crew chief" and the others as "referees".
Today, both classes of officials have equal rights to control all aspects of the game. The NCAA, however, has permitted instant replay for timing, the value of a field goal two or three points , shot clock violations, and for purposes of disqualifying players because of unsportsmanlike conduct.
The NBA changed its rules starting in to allow officials the ability to view instant replay with plays involving flagrant fouls, similar to the NCAA.
The center jump ball that was used to restart a game after every successful field goal was eliminated in , in favor of the ball being given to the non-scoring team from behind the end line where the goal was scored, in order to make play more continuous.
The jump ball was still used to start the game and every period, and to restart the game after a held ball. However, the NBA stopped using the jump ball to start the second through fourth quarters in , instead using a quarter-possession system where the loser of the jump ball takes the ball from the other end to start the second and third periods, while the winner of that jump ball takes the ball to start the fourth period from the other end of the court.
In , the NCAA adopted the alternating possession system for all jump ball situations except the beginning of the game, and in , FIBA adopted a similar rule, except for the start of the third period and overtime.
In , the rule was changed in FIBA that the arrow applies for all situations after the opening tap. In , the NBA introduced a rule to allow teams to advance the ball to the center line following any legal time-out in the final two minutes of the game.
FIBA followed suit in The most recent international rules of basketball were approved February 2, by FIBA and became effective October 1 of that year.
There are eight rules encompassing 50 articles, covering equipment and facilities, regulations regarding teams, players, captains and coaches, playing regulations, violations, fouls and their penalties, special situations, and the officials and table officials.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved October 2, The National Collegiate Athletic Association. Retrieved April 27, Retrieved October 27, University of Nebraska Press.
Retrieved from " https: Use mdy dates from October Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from December Articles with inconsistent citation formats.
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